# Why does ++[[]][+[]]+[+[]] return the string “10”?

## Questions : Why does ++[[]][+[]]+[+[]] return the string “10”?

This is valid and returns the string `"10"` in JavaScript (more examples here):

``console.log(++[[]][+[]]+[+[]])``

Why? What is happening here?

1. If we split it up, the mess is equal to:

``++[[]][+[]] + [+[]] ``

In JavaScript, it is true that `+[] === 0`. `+` converts something into a number, and in this case it will come down to `+""` or `0` (see specification details below).

Therefore, we can simplify it (`++` has precendence over `+`):

``++[[]] +  ``

Because `[[]]` means: get the first element from `[[]]`, it is true that:

`[[]]` returns the inner array (`[]`). Due to references it’s wrong to say `[[]] === []`, but let’s call the inner array `A` to avoid the wrong notation.

`++` before its operand means “increment by one and return the incremented result”. So `++[[]]` is equivalent to `Number(A) + 1` (or `+A + 1`).

Again, we can simplify the mess into something more legible. Let’s substitute `[]` back for `A`:

``(+[] + 1) +  ``

Before `+[]` can coerce the array into the number `0`, it needs to be coerced into a string first, which is `""`, again. Finally, `1` is added, which results in `1`.

• `(+[] + 1) === (+"" + 1)`
• `(+"" + 1) === (0 + 1)`
• `(0 + 1) === 1`

Let’s simplify it even more:

``1 +  ``

Also, this is true in JavaScript: ` == "0"`, because it’s joining an array with one element. Joining will concatenate the elements separated by `,`. With one element, you can deduce that this logic will result in the first element itself.

In this case, `+` sees two operands: a number and an array. It’s now trying to coerce the two into the same type. First, the array is coerced into the string `"0"`, next, the number is coerced into a string (`"1"`). Number `+` String `===` String.

``"1" + "0" === "10" // Yay! ``

Specification details for `+[]`:

This is quite a maze, but to do `+[]`, first it is being converted to a string because that’s what `+` says:

11.4.6 Unary + Operator

The unary + operator converts its operand to Number type.

The production UnaryExpression : + UnaryExpression is evaluated as follows:

1. Let expr be the result of evaluating UnaryExpression.

`ToNumber()` says:

Object

Apply the following steps:

1. Let primValue be ToPrimitive(input argument, hint String).

`ToPrimitive()` says:

Object

Return a default value for the Object. The default value of an object is retrieved by calling the [[DefaultValue]] internal method of the object, passing the optional hint PreferredType. The behaviour of the [[DefaultValue]] internal method is defined by this specification for all native ECMAScript objects in 8.12.8.

`[[DefaultValue]]` says:

8.12.8 [[DefaultValue]] (hint)

When the [[DefaultValue]] internal method of O is called with hint String, the following steps are taken:

1. Let toString be the result of calling the [[Get]] internal method of object O with argument “toString”.

2. If IsCallable(toString) is true then,

a. Let str be the result of calling the [[Call]] internal method of toString, with O as the this value and an empty argument list.

b. If str is a primitive value, return str.

The `.toString` of an array says:

15.4.4.2 Array.prototype.toString ( )

When the toString method is called, the following steps are taken:

1. Let array be the result of calling ToObject on the this value.

2. Let func be the result of calling the [[Get]] internal method of array with argument “join”.

3. If IsCallable(func) is false, then let func be the standard built-in method Object.prototype.toString (15.2.4.2).

4. Return the result of calling the [[Call]] internal method of func providing array as the this value and an empty arguments list.

So `+[]` comes down to `+""`, because `[].join() === ""`.

Again, the `+` is defined as:

11.4.6 Unary + Operator

The unary + operator converts its operand to Number type.

The production UnaryExpression : + UnaryExpression is evaluated as follows:

1. Let expr be the result of evaluating UnaryExpression.

`ToNumber` is defined for `""` as:

The MV of StringNumericLiteral ::: [empty] is 0.

So `+"" === 0`, and thus `+[] === 0`.

2. The following is adapted from a blog post answering this question that I posted while this question was still closed. Links are to (an HTML copy of) the ECMAScript 3 spec, still the baseline for JavaScript in today’s commonly used web browsers.

First, a comment: this kind of expression is never going to show up in any (sane) production environment and is only of any use as an exercise in just how well the reader knows the dirty edges of JavaScript. The general principle that JavaScript operators implicitly convert between types is useful, as are some of the common conversions, but much of the detail in this case is not.

The expression `++[[]][+[]]+[+[]]` may initially look rather imposing and obscure, but is actually relatively easy break down into separate expressions. Below I’ve simply added parentheses for clarity; I can assure you they change nothing, but if you want to verify that then feel free to read up about the grouping operator. So, the expression can be more clearly written as

``( ++[[]][+[]] ) + ( [+[]] ) ``

Breaking this down, we can simplify by observing that `+[]` evaluates to `0`. To satisfy yourself why this is true, check out the unary + operator and follow the slightly tortuous trail which ends up with ToPrimitive converting the empty array into an empty string, which is then finally converted to `0` by ToNumber. We can now substitute `0` for each instance of `+[]`:

``( ++[[]] ) +  ``

Simpler already. As for `++[[]]`, that’s a combination of the prefix increment operator (`++`), an array literal defining an array with single element that is itself an empty array (`[[]]`) and a property accessor (``) called on the array defined by the array literal.

So, we can simplify `[[]]` to just `[]` and we have `++[]`, right? In fact, this is not the case because evaluating `++[]` throws an error, which may initially seem confusing. However, a little thought about the nature of `++` makes this clear: it’s used to increment a variable (e.g. `++i`) or an object property (e.g. `++obj.count`). Not only does it evaluate to a value, it also stores that value somewhere. In the case of `++[]`, it has nowhere to put the new value (whatever it may be) because there is no reference to an object property or variable to update. In spec terms, this is covered by the internal PutValue operation, which is called by the prefix increment operator.

So then, what does `++[[]]` do? Well, by similar logic as `+[]`, the inner array is converted to `0` and this value is incremented by `1` to give us a final value of `1`. The value of property `0` in the outer array is updated to `1` and the whole expression evaluates to `1`.

This leaves us with

``1 +  ``

… which is a simple use of the addition operator. Both operands are first converted to primitives and if either primitive value is a string, string concatenation is performed, otherwise numeric addition is performed. `` converts to `"0"`, so string concatenation is used, producing `"10"`.

As a final aside, something that may not be immediately apparent is that overriding either one of the `toString()` or `valueOf()` methods of `Array.prototype` will change the result of the expression, because both are checked and used if present when converting an object into a primitive value. For example, the following

``Array.prototype.toString = function() { return "foo"; }; ++[[]][+[]]+[+[]] ``

… produces `"NaNfoo"`. Why this happens is left as an exercise for the reader…

3. This one evaluates to the same but a bit smaller

``+!![]+''+(+[]) ``
• [] – is an array is converted that is converted to 0 when you add or subtract from it, so hence +[] = 0
• ![] – evaluates to false, so hence !![] evaluates to true
• +!![] – converts the true to a numeric value that evaluates to true, so in this case 1
• +” – appends an empty string to the expression causing the number to be converted to string
• +[] – evaluates to 0

so is evaluates to

``+(true) + '' + (0) 1 + '' + 0 "10" ``

So now you got that, try this one:

``_=\$=+[],++_+''+\$ ``
4. +[] evaluates to 0 […] then summing (+ operation) it with anything converts array content to its string representation consisting of elements joined with comma.

Anything other like taking index of array (have grater priority than + operation) is ordinal and is nothing interesting.

5. Perhaps the shortest possible ways to evaluate an expression as `"10"` without digits are:

``+!+[] + [+[]] // "10" -~[] + [+[]] // "10" ``

## Explanation

• `+!+[]`:
• `+[]` is evaluated as `0`.
• `!0` is evaluated as `true`.
• `+true` is evaluated as `1`.
• `-~[]` is the same as `-(-1)` which is evaluated as `1`.
• `[+[]]`:
• `+[]` is evaluated as 0
• `` is an array with the single element `0`.

Then, JS evaluates the `1 + `, a Number + Array expression. Then the ECMA specification works: `+` operator converts both operands to a string by calling the ToPrimitive and ToString abstract operations. It operates as an additive function if both operands of an expression are numbers only. The trick is that arrays easily coerce their elements into a concatenated string representation.

Some examples:

``1 + {} // "1[object Object]" 1 + [] // "1" 1 + new Date() // "1Wed Jun 19 2013 12:13:25 GMT+0400 (Caucasus Standard Time)" [] + [] // ""  +  // "12" {} + {} // "[object Object][object Object]" ¹ {a:1} + {b:2} // "[object Object][object Object]" ¹ [1, {}] + [2, {}] // "1,[object Object]2,[object Object]" ``

¹: Note that each line is evaluated in an expression context. The first `{``}` is an object literal, not a block, as would be the case in a statement context. In a REPL, you may see `{} + {}` resulting in `NaN`, because most REPLs operate in a statement context; here, the first `{}` is a block, and the code is equivalent to `{}; +{};`, with the final expression statement (whose value becomes the result of the completion record) is `NaN` because the unary `+` coerces the object to a number.

6. Step by steps of that, `+` turn value to a number and if you add to an empty array `+[]`…as it’s empty and is equal to `0`, it will

So from there, now look into your code, it’s `++[[]][+[]]+[+[]]`

And there is plus between them `++[[]][+[]]` + `[+[]]`

So these `[+[]]` will return `` as they have an empty array which gets converted to `0` inside the other array…

So as imagine, the first value is a 2-dimensional array with one array inside… so `[[]][+[]]` will be equal to `[[]]` which will return `[]`

And at the end `++` convert it and increase it to `1`

So you can imagine, `1` + `"0"` will be `"10"` 7. ``++[[]][+[]]+[+[]] ^^^ | v ++[[]][+[]]+ ^^^ | v ++[[]]+ ^^^^^^^ | v ++[]+ ^^^ | v ++[]+"0" ^^^^ | v ++0+"0" ^^^ | v 1+"0" ^^^^^ | v "10" ``

The `+` operator coerces any non-number operand via `.valueOf()`. If that doesn’t return a number then `.toString()` is invoked.

We can verify this simply with:

``const x = [], y = []; x.valueOf = () => (console.log('x.valueOf() has been called'), y.valueOf()); x.toString = () => (console.log('x.toString() has been called'), y.toString()); console.log(`+x -> \${+x}`);``

So `+[]` is the same as coercing `""` into a number which is `0`.

If any operand is a string then `+` concatenates.

1. Unary plus given string converts to number
2. Increment operator given string converts and increments by 1
3. [] == ”. Empty String
4. +” or +[] evaluates 0.

``++[[]][+[]]+[+[]] = 10 ++[''] +  : First part is gives zeroth element of the array which is empty string 1+0 10 ``
8. It seems the images you have used is very large in size.so some older devices crashes occurs due to heap memory full.In older devices(honey comb or ICS or any low end model devices) try to use `android:largeHeap="true"` in the manifest file under application tag or reduce the size of the bitmap by using below code.

``Bitmap bMap; BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options(); options.InSampleSize = 8; bMap= BitmapFactory.DecodeFile(imgFile.AbsolutePath, options); ``

you can also give 4 or 12 or 16 to reduce the bitmap size

9. ``BitmapFactory.Options options = new Options(); options.inSampleSize = 32; //img = BitmapFactory.decodeFile(imageids[position], options); Bitmap theImage = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(imageStream,null, options); Bitmap img=theImage.copy(Bitmap.Config.RGB_565,true); theImage.recycle(); theImage = null; System.gc(); //ivlogdp.setImageBitmap(img); Runtime.getRuntime().gc(); ``
10. I tried Thomas Vervest’s approach, but it returns a scale of 1 for image size 2592×1944 when IMAGE_MAX_SIZE is 2048.

This version worked for me based on all the other comments provided by others:

``private Bitmap decodeFile (File f) { Bitmap b = null; try { // Decode image size BitmapFactory.Options o = new BitmapFactory.Options (); o.inJustDecodeBounds = true; FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream (f); try { BitmapFactory.decodeStream (fis, null, o); } finally { fis.close (); } int scale = 1; for (int size = Math.max (o.outHeight, o.outWidth); (size>>(scale-1)) > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE; ++scale); // Decode with inSampleSize BitmapFactory.Options o2 = new BitmapFactory.Options (); o2.inSampleSize = scale; fis = new FileInputStream (f); try { b = BitmapFactory.decodeStream (fis, null, o2); } finally { fis.close (); } } catch (IOException e) { } return b; } ``
11. use this concept this will help you, After that set the imagebitmap on image view

``public static Bitmap convertBitmap(String path) { Bitmap bitmap=null; BitmapFactory.Options bfOptions=new BitmapFactory.Options(); bfOptions.inDither=false; //Disable Dithering mode bfOptions.inPurgeable=true; //Tell to gc that whether it needs free memory, the Bitmap can be cleared bfOptions.inInputShareable=true; //Which kind of reference will be used to recover the Bitmap data after being clear, when it will be used in the future bfOptions.inTempStorage=new byte[32 * 1024]; File file=new File(path); FileInputStream fs=null; try { fs = new FileInputStream(file); } catch (FileNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } try { if(fs!=null) { bitmap=BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor(fs.getFD(), null, bfOptions); } } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } finally{ if(fs!=null) { try { fs.close(); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } } return bitmap; } ``

If you want to make a small image from large image with height and width like 60 and 60 and scroll the listview fast then use this concept

``public static Bitmap decodeSampledBitmapFromPath(String path, int reqWidth, int reqHeight) { final BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options(); options.inJustDecodeBounds = true; BitmapFactory.decodeFile(path, options); options.inSampleSize = calculateInSampleSize(options, reqWidth, reqHeight); // Decode bitmap with inSampleSize set options.inJustDecodeBounds = false; Bitmap bmp = BitmapFactory.decodeFile(path, options); return bmp; } public static int calculateInSampleSize(BitmapFactory.Options options, int reqWidth, int reqHeight) { final int height = options.outHeight; final int width = options.outWidth; int inSampleSize = 1; if (height > reqHeight || width > reqWidth) { if (width > height) { inSampleSize = Math.round((float) height / (float) reqHeight); } else { inSampleSize = Math.round((float) width / (float) reqWidth); } } return inSampleSize; } ``

I hope it will help you much.

You can take help from developer site Here

12. `private Bitmap decodeBitmapFile (File f) { Bitmap bitmap = null; try { // Decode image size BitmapFactory.Options o = new BitmapFactory.Options (); o.inJustDecodeBounds = true; FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream (f); try { BitmapFactory.decodeStream (fis, null, o); } finally { fis.close (); } int scale = 1; for (int size = Math.max (o.outHeight, o.outWidth); (size>>(scale-1)) > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE; ++scale); // Decode with input-stram SampleSize BitmapFactory.Options o2 = new BitmapFactory.Options (); o2.inSampleSize = scale; fis = new FileInputStream (f); try { bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream (fis, null, o2); } finally { fis.close (); } } catch (IOException e) { } return bitmap ; } `
13. To fix OutOfMemory you should do something like that please try this code

``public Bitmap loadBitmap(String URL, BitmapFactory.Options options) { Bitmap bitmap = null; InputStream in = null; options.inSampleSize=4; try { in = OpenHttpConnection(URL); Log.e("In====>", in+""); bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(in, null, options); Log.e("URL====>", bitmap+""); in.close(); } catch (IOException e1) { } return bitmap; } ``

and

``try { BitmapFactory.Options bmOptions; bmOptions = new BitmapFactory.Options(); bmOptions.inSampleSize = 1; if(studentImage != null){ galleryThumbnail= loadBitmap(IMAGE_URL+studentImage, bmOptions); } galleryThumbnail=getResizedBitmap(galleryThumbnail, imgEditStudentPhoto.getHeight(), imgEditStudentPhoto.getWidth()); Log.e("Image_Url==>",IMAGE_URL+studentImage+""); } catch (Exception e) { // TODO Auto-generated catch block e.printStackTrace(); } ``
14. After looking through all the answers, I was surprised to see that no one mentioned the Glide API for handling images. Great library, and abstracts out all the complexity of bitmap management. You can load and resize images quickly with this library and a single line of code.

`` Glide.with(this).load(yourImageResource).into(imageview); ``

You can get the repository here: https://github.com/bumptech/glide

15. I used Decode File Descriptor which worked for me :

`` FileInputStream fileInputStream = null; try { fileInputStream = new FileInputStream(file); FileDescriptor fd = fileInputStream.getFD(); Bitmap imageBitmap = decodeSampledBitmapFromDescriptor(fd , 612, 816); imageView.setImageBitmap(imageBitmap); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }finally { if(fileInputStream != null){ try { fileInputStream.close(); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } } ``

Code to decode Sampled Bitmap From File Descriptor:

`` /** * Decode and sample down a bitmap from a file input stream to the requested width and height. * * @param fileDescriptor The file descriptor to read from * @param reqWidth The requested width of the resulting bitmap * @param reqHeight The requested height of the resulting bitmap * @return A bitmap sampled down from the original with the same aspect ratio and dimensions * that are equal to or greater than the requested width and height */ public static Bitmap decodeSampledBitmapFromDescriptor( FileDescriptor fileDescriptor, int reqWidth, int reqHeight) { // First decode with inJustDecodeBounds=true to check dimensions final BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options(); options.inJustDecodeBounds = true; BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor(fileDescriptor, null, options); // Calculate inSampleSize options.inSampleSize = calculateInSampleSize(options, reqWidth, reqHeight); // Decode bitmap with inSampleSize set options.inJustDecodeBounds = false; return BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor(fileDescriptor, null, options); } /** * Calculate an inSampleSize for use in a {@link android.graphics.BitmapFactory.Options} object when decoding * bitmaps using the decode* methods from {@link android.graphics.BitmapFactory}. This implementation calculates * the closest inSampleSize that will result in the final decoded bitmap having a width and * height equal to or larger than the requested width and height. This implementation does not * ensure a power of 2 is returned for inSampleSize which can be faster when decoding but * results in a larger bitmap which isn't as useful for caching purposes. * * @param options An options object with out* params already populated (run through a decode* * method with inJustDecodeBounds==true * @param reqWidth The requested width of the resulting bitmap * @param reqHeight The requested height of the resulting bitmap * @return The value to be used for inSampleSize */ public static int calculateInSampleSize(BitmapFactory.Options options, int reqWidth, int reqHeight) { // Raw height and width of image final int height = options.outHeight; final int width = options.outWidth; int inSampleSize = 1; if (height > reqHeight || width > reqWidth) { // Calculate ratios of height and width to requested height and width final int heightRatio = Math.round((float) height / (float) reqHeight); final int widthRatio = Math.round((float) width / (float) reqWidth); // Choose the smallest ratio as inSampleSize value, this will guarantee a final image // with both dimensions larger than or equal to the requested height and width. inSampleSize = heightRatio < widthRatio ? heightRatio : widthRatio; // This offers some additional logic in case the image has a strange // aspect ratio. For example, a panorama may have a much larger // width than height. In these cases the total pixels might still // end up being too large to fit comfortably in memory, so we should // be more aggressive with sample down the image (=larger inSampleSize). final float totalPixels = width * height; // Anything more than 2x the requested pixels we'll sample down further final float totalReqPixelsCap = reqWidth * reqHeight * 2; while (totalPixels / (inSampleSize * inSampleSize) > totalReqPixelsCap) { inSampleSize++; } } return inSampleSize; } ``
16. This will get an appropriate bitmap and reduce memory consumption

JAVA

``Bitmap bm = null; BitmapFactory.Options bmpOption = new BitmapFactory.Options(); bmpOption.inJustDecodeBounds = true; FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(file); BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, bmpOption); fis.close(); int scale = 1; if (bmpOption.outHeight > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE || bmpOption.outWidth > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE) { scale = (int)Math.pow(2, (int) Math.ceil(Math.log(IMAGE_MAX_SIZE / (double) Math.max(bmpOption.outHeight, bmpOption.outWidth)) / Math.log(0.5))); } BitmapFactory.Options bmpOption2 = new BitmapFactory.Options(); bmpOption2.inSampleSize = scale; fis = new FileInputStream(file); bm = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, bmpOption2); fis.close(); ``

Kotlin

``val bm:Bitmap = null val bmpOption = BitmapFactory.Options() bmpOption.inJustDecodeBounds = true val fis = FileInputStream(file) BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, bmpOption) fis.close() val scale = 1 if (bmpOption.outHeight > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE || bmpOption.outWidth > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE) { scale = Math.pow(2.0, Math.ceil((Math.log((IMAGE_MAX_SIZE / Math.max(bmpOption.outHeight, bmpOption.outWidth) as Double)) / Math.log(0.5))).toInt().toDouble()).toInt() } val bmpOption2 = BitmapFactory.Options() bmpOption2.inSampleSize = scale fis = FileInputStream(file) bm = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, bmpOption2) fis.close() ``
17. If you are lazy like me, you can start using Picasso library to load images.

``Picasso.with(context).load(R.drawable.landing_screen).into(imageView1); Picasso.with(context).load("file:///android_asset/DvpvklR.png").into(imageView2); Picasso.with(context).load(new File(...)).into(imageView3); ``
18. Best practices to avoid memory leaks or OOM for bitmap

1. Do not keep bitmap references for long-lived to a Context / Activity.
2. If you are using a large bitmap as background or something in your application then don’t pull the full image into the main memory. You can use the insample size property of bitmap to bring the size your screen needs.
3. Clean bitmap reference once no longer use.
19. I needed to load a large size image into Bitmap and I used Glide to solve this issue. First check the image size with BitmapFactory.Options using inJustDecodeBounds set to true, then use Glide to get Bitmap object. I used the profiler to check memory usage but I did not see any memory spike like I did when I was using BitmapFactory.decodeFile(). I am writing in c# as I use Xamarin, so need a little tweak to use in Java. Glide library documentation

``private Bitmap DecodeFile(File file) { // Decode image size BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options(); // setting inJustDecodeBounds to true won't load the file into memory,  // but gives you the actual file size. options.InJustDecodeBounds = true; BitmapFactory.decodeStream(new FileInputStream(file), null, options); int actualWidth = options.OutWidth; int actualHeight = options.OutHeight; var ratio = (double)actualHeight / actualWidth; // Default to 800 x 600. changed the size whatever you need. var desiredWidth = 800; var desiredHeight = 600; if(actualHeight > actualWidth) { var ratio = (double)actualWidth / actualHeight; var futureTarget = Glide.With(Application.Context) .AsBitmap() .Load(file) .SetDiskCacheStrategy(DiskCacheStrategy.None) .SkipMemoryCache(true) .Submit((int)(desiredWidth * ratio), desiredWidth); bitmap = futureTarget.Get() as Bitmap; } else { var ratio = (double)actualHeight / actualWidth; var futureTarget = Glide.With(Application.Context) .AsBitmap() .Load(file) .SetDiskCacheStrategy(DiskCacheStrategy.None) .SkipMemoryCache(true) .Submit(desiredWidth, (int)(desiredWidth * ratio)); bitmap = futureTarget.Get() as Bitmap; }return bitmap;} ``
20. Add the following lines to your manifest.xml file:

``<application android:hardwareAccelerated="false" android:largeHeap="true"> <activity> </activity> </application> ``
21. After setting an bitmap to imageview, recycle it like this:

``bitmap.recycle(); bitmap=null; ``

Tasg: javascript, syntax

jidam
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